Please accept our thanks and congratulations for your very interesting work which I am sure are having a great positive impact in our society.” — from Roberto Quevedo, Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

By Carmen Trudell, University of Virginia

What is it?

Based on computational physics, Energy2D is an interactive, visual multiphysics simulation program that models all three modes of heat transfer—conduction, convection, and radiation, and their coupling with particle dynamics. Energy2D runs quickly on most computers and eliminates the switches among preprocessors, solvers, and postprocessors typically needed to perform computational fluid dynamics simulations. It allows you to design "computational experiments" to test a scientific hypothesis or solve an engineering problem without resorting to complex mathematics. Work is also underway to incorporate other types of energy transformations (e.g., phase changes and chemical reactions through the Stefan condition), to support multiple types of fluids (e.g., air and water), and to provide sensor interfaces for creating mixed-reality applications.

How to cite it?

Charles Xie, Interactive Heat Transfer Simulations for Everyone, The Physics Teacher, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp. 237-240, 2012.

An IR image of a heated model house with a ceiling An IR image of a heated model house without a ceiling
An Energy2D simulation of a heated house with a ceiling An Energy2D simulation of a heated house without a ceiling

How well does it model reality?

The conduction part of Energy2D is highly accurate, but the convection and radiation parts are not 100% accurate. Hence, in cases that involve convection and radiation, Energy2D results should be considered as qualitative. The pictures to the right show a comparison of the results of Energy2D simulations with images from infrared (IR) thermography for a simple model house. The thermal patterns predicted by Energy2D roughly match those from an IR camera.

How many papers have used it?

The following is a list of published scientific papers that have used Energy2D as a research tool (not just a citation):

  1. Dorin Copaci, Dolores Blanco, & Luis E. Moreno, Flexible Shape-Memory Alloy-Based Actuator: Mechanical Design Optimization According to Application, Actuators, Volume 8, Issue 3, p. 63, 2019
  2. Sabri Pllana, Suejb Memeti, & Joanna Kolodziej, Customizing Pareto Simulated Annealing for Multi-objective Optimization of Control Cabinet Layout, The 22nd International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science, 2019
  3. Surjamanto Wonorahardjo, Inge Sutjahja, Siti Aisyah Damiati, & Daniel Kurnia, Adjustment of Indoor Temperature using Internal Thermal Mass under Different Tropical Weather Conditions, Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 2019
  4. José Andrés Alanís Navarro, Margarita Castillo Téllez, Mario Arturo Rivera Martínez, Gabriel Pedroza Silvar, & Francisco Christian Martínez Tejeda, Computational thermal analysis of a double slope solar still using Energy2D, Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 151, pp 26-33, 2019
  5. D. Copaci, F. Martin, L. Moreno, & D. Blanco, SMA-Based Elbow Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation Therapy and Patient Evaluation, IEEE Access, 2019
  6. R. C. G. M. Loonen, M. L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, & J. L. M. Hensen, Opportunities and Pitfalls of Using Building Performance Simulation in Explorative R&D Contexts, Journal of Building Performance Simulation, 2019
  7. Weera Punin, Somchai Maneewan, & Chantana Punlek, Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Thermoelectric Power Generator System for Low-Grade Waste Heat Recovery from the Sugar Industry, Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 979-991, 2019
  8. Ashenafi Tesfaye, Design and Development of Low Power Output Solar Chimney Power Plant, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, 2018
  9. Alessandro Massaro, Angelo Galiano, Giacomo Meuli, & Saverio Francesco Massari, Overview and Application of Enabling Technologies Oriented on Energy Routing Monitoring, on Network Installation and on Predictive Maintenance, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 9, No.2, pp 1-20, 2018
  10. Muammar Mansor, Khadouja Harouaka, Matthew S. Gonzales, Jennifer L. Macalady, & Matthew S. Fantle, Transport-Induced Spatial Patterns of Sulfur Isotopes (δ34S) as Biosignatures, Astrobiology, Volume 18, No. 1, pp 59-72, 2018
  11. Dorin Sabin Copaci, Non-Linear Actuators and Simulation Tools for Rehabilitation Devices, Ph.D. Dissertation, Carlos III University of Madrid, p. 89, 2017
  12. Proma Chakraborty, Impact of Furniture on the Energy Consumption of Commercial Buildings, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems, pp 316-319, 2017
  13. E. Rozos, I. Tsoukalas, & C. Makropoulos, Turning Black into Green: Ecosystem Services from Treated Wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, Volume 91, October, pp 198-205, 2017
  14. Gu Hai-Rong, Dong Qiang-Zhu, Li Jin-Ping, Liang Feng-Dian, Zhang Fei, Wang Zuo-Jia, Heating Modes and Heat Transfer Process of Asphalt Pavement Hot In-place Recycling (in Chinese), Road Machinery & Construction Mechanization, Volume 34, Issue 11, pp 96-99, 2017
  15. Sadik A. Yildizel, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviors Comparison of Basalt and Glass Fibers Reinforced Concrete with Two Different Fiber Length Distributions, Challenge Journal of Structural Mechanics, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 155-159, 2017
  16. Georgia Kaklamani, David Cheneler, Liam M. Grover, Michael J. Adams, Spiros H. Anastasiadis, & James Bowen, Anisotropic Dehydration of Hydrogel Surfaces, Progress in Biomaterials, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp157-164, 2017
  17. M. Stütz, F. Pixner, J. Wagner, N. Reheis, E. Raiser, H. Kestler, & N. Enzinger, Rotary Friction Welding of Molybdenum Components, The 19th Plansee Seminar, 2017
  18. Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, A. Zarzycka, Dennis de Witte, M. V. Sarakinioti, & Jan L.M. Hensen, Assisting the Development of Innovative Responsive Facade Elements Using Building Performance Simulation, in M. Turrin, B. Peters, W. O'Brien, R. Stouffs, & T. Dogan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, pp. 243-250, 2017
  19. Mahfoud Abderrezek & Mohamed Fathi, Experimental Study of the Dust Effect on Photovoltaic Panels' Energy Yield, Solar Energy, Volume 142, pp 308-320, 2017
  20. Dennis de Witte, Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, Jan L.M. Hensen, Ulrich Knaack, & Gregor Zimmermann, Convective Concrete: Additive Manufacturing to Facilitate Activation of Thermal Mass, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Volume 5, No. 1, 2017
  21. Javier G. Monroy & Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez, Gas Classification in Motion: An Experimental Analysis, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 240, pp 1205-1215, 2017
  22. Tom Rainforth, Tuan Anh Le, Jan-Willem van de Meent, Michael A. Osborne, & Frank Wood, Bayesian Optimization for Probabilistic Programs, 30th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 2016
  23. W. Taylor Shoulders, Richard Locke, & Romain M. Gaume, Elastic Airtight Container for the Compaction of Air-Sensitive Materials, Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 87, 063908, 2016
  24. Zachary R. Adam, Temperature Oscillations near Natural Nuclear Reactor Cores and the Potential for Prebiotic Oligomer Synthesis, Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp 171-187, 2016
  25. Jiarui Chen, Shuyu Qin, Xinglong Wu, & Paul K Chu, Morphology and Pattern Control of Diphenylalanine Self-Assembly via Evaporative Dewetting, ACS Nano, Volume 10, No. 1, pp 832-838, 2016
  26. Atanas Vasilev, Geothermal Evolution of Gas Hydrate Deposits: Bulgarian Exclusive Economic Zone in the Black Sea, Comptes rendus de l‘Académie bulgare des Sciences, Volume 68, No. 9, pp 1135-1144, 2015
  27. Pedro A. Hernández, et al., Magma Emission Rates from Shallow Submarine Eruptions Using Airborne Thermal Imaging, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 154, pp 219-225, November 2014

How many books have recommended it?

The following is a list of books that have recommended Energy2D:

  1. Franco Landriscina, Simulation and Learning: A Model-Centered Approach, Springer, 2013
  2. Jiyuan Tu, Guan Heng Yeoh, and Chaoqun Liu, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition: A Practical Approach, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012

What people are saying about it?

The software program Energy2D is used to solve the dynamic Fourier heat transfer equations for the Convective Concrete case. Energy2D is a relatively new program (Xie, 2012) and is not yet widely used as a building performance simulation tool. To gain more confidence in the predictions with Energy2D, an analytical validation study was therefore carried out first, inspired by the approach described in Hensen and Nakhi (1994). Those analytical solutions and the simulation results of the dynamic response to a 20°C temperature step change on the surface of a concrete construction with the following properties were compared for this research... the simulation results never divert from the exact solution more than 0.45°C and it is therefore considered acceptable to further use this model.” — Dennis de Witte, Marie L. de Klijn-Chevalerias, Roel C.G.M. Loonen, Jan L.M. Hensen, Ulrich Knaack, & Gregor Zimmermann, Journal of Facade Design and Engineering

Speaking of the thermo-electric analogy being presented in this work, it is worth mentioning the freely downloadable Java app Energy2D, which permits the numerical/interactive solution of a basically unlimited series of simulations concerning heat transfer. As such, this app can also be seen as an almost perfect and very customizable numerical engine for treating electrostatic problems of various assortment.” — from Stefano Oss & Giuliano Zendri, European Journal of Physics

Thank you for your absolutely great app which helps me a lot for visualizing my lecture in thermodynamics. It is also very nice to see that three platforms are supported and every single one is free to use. That is just awesome and I want to say thank you for all users. I do not know how many messages of this type you are receiving.” — from Martin Weise, Austria

In gearing up to teach a course called Building Science this semester, I somehow stumbled across your program Energy2D and Energy3D. I was really impressed by how simple and easy these tools were and I'm definitely going to integrate them into some portion of my lectures.”— Prof. Brent Stephens, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

I am currently involved in renewable energy related research activities and teaching. I have downloaded and demonstrating Energy2D for my heat transfer course. It is really a very useful tool.”— Dr. Mazharul Islam, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

Today during the lunch break a little simulated comparison fan in the suction and blowing operation collector here about 50x70 cm and fan with 2 meters / second. [The result] is confirmed by the experiences of several users: pressure losses and less volume of air in the blowing operation.” (Link to the source)

...what was really interesting, was that when I continued playing with the simulator, sometimes my convection examples would split into two cycling air cells, one above and to the left, one below and to the right, with the hot air blasting right for the cold source, rather than rising. That's really interesting, because I've experienced this when using smoke demonstrations in class, and the fact that the simulator can capture that behavior shows how accurate this teaching tool actually is.” (Link to the source)

...this free software is basic, yet you can modify properties and all, the desktop download gives better results and the pages have a choice of practical setups to download and use that are very practical” (Link to the source)

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Created by Charles Xie. © 2010- The Concord Consortium.

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